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University of Sunderland
Faculty of Applied Sciences
Department of Computing, Engineering and Technology
Assignment 2 of 2
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Submission Date and Time
Before 4pm, Tuesday 15th March 2016
Submission Location
St Peters Campus
Page 2 of 4
EAT118 Energy Conversion – Coursework 2015-2016
A reservoir empties by gravity into a second reservoir via an inclined pipe system, as shown in Fig.
1 (final page). Both reservoirs are open to the atmosphere and the difference in levels is h. Since the
reservoirs are large, h can be assumed to be constant.
Using the individual data assigned to you, calculate:
1. The volumetric flow rate Q through the pipes connecting the reservoirs.
2. The velocity of the water in each pipe and hence the corresponding Reynolds numbers.
The secondary loss coefficients associated with the entry to the first pipe (kL1) and final reservoir
(kL5) are shown in Fig. 1. You will need to calculate the loss coefficients for the gradual contraction
(kL2) and sudden expansion (kL4), using the data assigned to you. The loss coefficient associated
with the bends (kL3) is assigned. You will also be assigned values for the Darcy–Weisbach friction
factors for each pipe, f1, f2 and f3, as well as the lengths and diameters of the different pipes, and the
angle () to be used in conjunction with Figure 2.
Assume that the dynamic viscosity and density of water are 1.3×10-3 Pa s and 1000 kg/m3,
 Your solution MUST be handwritten.
 All intermediate working must be shown.
 Marks will be deducted for untidy or illegible work.
 This assignment contributes 25% to the overall module mark.
The loss coefficient associated with the gradual contraction can be estimated from the parameters
D1, D2 and , shown in Fig. 2a, in conjunction with the chart shown in Fig. 2b. The loss is then
given by
kL 2
2 .
Fig. 2a
Page 3 of 4
Fig. 2b
Marking scheme:
Correct statement of Bernoulli’s equation
Losses in each pipe, as functions of Q2. Where appropriate, you should also
state any calculated loss coefficients.
Volume flow rate Q (m3/s)
Flow velocities and Reynolds numbers in pipes 1, 2 and 3
Presentation and clarity of the work, including intermediate calculations.
You should present your main results in a summary table, following the
main calculations.
Total 100
© Dr. K. Burn, University of Sunderland, 2016.
Page 4 of 4
Fig. 1 Reservoir pipe system
Sudden expansion, kL4
Pipe 1:
Diameter D1
Length L1
kL1 = 0.35
Pipe 2:
Diameter D2
Length L2
Pipe 3:
Diameter D3
Length L3
Gradual contraction, kL2
Bends, kL3
kL5 = 1.0
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