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Man, being a social animal, has to live in harmony with fellow human beings. Human society has created the unique institution of organized state in order to maintain public order, defend frontiers, and ensure harmony among individuals and groups. After centuries of struggle, only in the modern era has it generally come to be accepted that the state cannot be controlled by divine right or power. Neither hereditary succession nor favors are acceptable as arbiters of political power in a civilized society. Throughout most of our ancient and medieval history, there is no clear evidence of a theory of state at work. While the absolute power of the absolute monarchy was accepted, the relative self-governing state of individuals and groups from state power was recognized and respected in large spheres of human endeavor.
I am a student from India and I would like to tell you about my countries political system. India is the largest practicing democracy in the world. India, a union of states, is a Sovereign, Secular and Democratic Republic with a Parliamentary systemof Government. The Indian polity is governed in terms of the Constitution.. The constitution of India is the second biggest in the world. Our constitution consists of Parts, Schedules and the Preamble. The President is the constitutional head of Executive of the Union. Real executive power vests in a Council of Ministers with the Prime Minister as head. The two houses of he parliament are called The Rajya Sabha and The Lok Sabha
In the states, the Governor, as the representative of the President, is the head of Executive, but real executive power rests with the Chief Minister who heads the Council of Ministers. The power to amend the Constitution also vests in Parliament. Under the Constitution, Parliament has the power to make laws for the whole of or any part of the territory of India. The Union Executive consists of the President, the Vice-President and Council of Ministers with the Prime Minister at the head to aid and advise the President.
The President is elected by members of an Electoral College consisting of elected members of both Houses of Parliament and Legislative Assemblies of the states, with suitable weightage given to each vote. His term of office is five years The Vice-President is elected by the members of an electoral college consisting of members of both Houses of Parliament by means of a single transferable vote. He also holds office for five years. The Council of Ministers comprises Cabinet Ministers, Minister of States and Deputy Ministers. Prime Minister communicates all decisions of the Council of Ministers relating to administration of affairs of the Union and proposals for legislation to the President. This was the brief explanation of how the political system works in India.
Now I would like to tell you about the working of political system in America which will help in comparing it with the political system of India. The Constitution of the United States is the central instrument of American government and the supreme law of the land and consists of a preamble, seven articles and 27 amendments. The primary aim of the Constitution is to create a strong elected government, directly responsive to the will of the people. The Constitution and the federal government stand at the peak of a governmental pyramid that includes local and state jurisdictions. In the U.S. system each level of government has a large degree of autonomy with certain powers reserved particularly to itself. The courts resolve disputes between different jurisdictions. The three main branches of government – executive, legislative, judicial — are separate and distinct from one another. The powers given to each are delicately balanced by the powers of the other two. Each branch serves as a check on potential excesses of the others. The people have the right to change their form of national government by legal means defined in the Constitution itself. The office of president of the United States is one of the most powerful in the world. Democratic and Republican are the two main political parties in United States.