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Sport is an ever growing aspect of our cultures, and as the access to different avenues of sport begin to present themselves we question the ability of sport organizations to expand globally. This review of literature will examine different avenues of sport and the research that has been done in regards to their effort to expand on a global scale.
Arguably one of the most successful avenues of sport to expand globally is soccer. Soccer is played in more countries(204) than any other sport. (Klein, 2008) A perfect example of soccer as a brand that has expanded globally is Manchester United. In a case study by John S. Hill and John Vincent Manchester United’s Globalization in sport branding is examined through using David Aaker’s Brand Identity model. (Hill & Vincent, 2006) Aaker’s model breaks down what makes up the core and extended brand identities. (Aaker, 1996) These values that make up the core and extended brand identities are brand as product, brand as organization, brand as person, and brand as symbol. (Aaker, 1996) Hill and Vincent throughout this case study explain…