+1 (218) 451-4151 info@writersnest.org
Select Page

Social referencing, according to Bernstein, Penner, Clarke-Stewart, and Roy (2008), occurs in ambiguous social situations when cues are taken from other people to determine appropriate actions. This processes is important in the lives of developing and growing infants, as they are continuously confronted with new and strange situations in their new worlds. These infants often gain information about these situations from their primary care giver, historically the mother. This paper will provide a summary of research relating to social referencing in infants. The foundational work of Saul Feinman will be reviewed. Current research looking at how depression affects social referencing and how fathers are looked to for social cues will also be presented.
Feinman: Social Referencing in Infancy
Feinman (1982) was one of the first psychologists to detail this phenomenon and in regards to infants. Beginning with a brief overview, he claimed that “social referencing is the hallmark of many psychological theories,” and he cited social comparison, affiliation, conformity, obedience, and m…
… middle of paper …