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Paper instructions:
These are 5 questions one is a must and the other 4 choose from the fa  list of more than 10 questions, and answer should
be around 300 words max per question).
Write up to 400 words on the No-Miracle Argument and how it support scientific realism?
Plus choose four questions (from the following list of questions) and answer
them (300 words max per question).
Zeno
(1)What is Zeno’s paradox? What does it intend to show? What is its assumption? What is its philosophical significance in the
context of the debate between Elea school (Parmenides, Melissus) and the school of atoms (Democritus, Leucippus)? How to
solve the paradox?
Democritus/Leucippus
(2)Why do they (Democritus/Leucippus) believe that space exists even though they acknowledge that space is nothing? What are
their arguments for the existence of nothingness? List two arguments and explain and evaluate them. Do these arguments
sufficiently support their view (atomism)?
Aristotle
(3)What is Aristotelian physics? Why do physical objects move and change? What is Aristotle’s explanation? How does it differ
from Newton’s physics (Newton’s explanation of motion and change)?
Newton
(4)How is Newtonian space different from Aristotelian space? How is it different from Leibniz’s space? What does Newton’s
bucket experiment show about the nature of (Newtonian) space?
Kant
(5)What is space, according to Kant? Does space objectively existing part of reality?
How does Kant describe our knowledge of space? Is it analytic or synthetic? Is it a priori or a posteriori? Explain the
nature of human knowledge of space (according to Kant).
Einstein
(6)How does Einstein explain gravity in his theory of general relativity? How is his theory different from Newtonian theory
of gravity? How is Einstein’s space different from Newtonian space?
(7)Einstein does not believe that space can be cut or ripped open. Space is strong enough not to allow such distortions or
demolitions. Would quantum physicists agree with Einstein on this nature of space? Choose any evidence or example where
Einstein’s view of space can be wrong and explain whether it sufficiently proves Einstein’s view.
Quantum Space
(8)According to quantum physics space can be ripped off and cut open to create new dimensions and passages. It seems that
quantum space allows things that violate basic structure of space (and time), such as time travel or quantum transportation.
How can the universe be maintained in the middle of these disruptions, interruptions, mutations, destructions, and re-
creations of quantum space? How can the macro-world (the world with big objects) be unaffected by these unimaginable
subatomic changes? Newton gave rational structure and Einstein gave a dynamic order to space. Can quantum physics give any
order to space? Is the universe a bubbling chaos (as quantum physics suggests)?
String Theory
(9)What are the major intellectual motivations behind the development of string theory? What are the advantages and
disadvantages of string theory? What is the philosophical significance of string theory? What is string space? How does it
look like?
Fractal Space
(10)What is fractal space? Explain the spatiality of fractal space (What kind of space is it)? How does it explain complex
natural phenomena?
Perception/Experience of Space
A.Embodied Space (Lakoff Johnson)
(11)According to Lakoff and Johnson, “up” and “down” are interpreted as embodied metaphors. Is space embodied metaphor? If it
is, how to understand spatial locations? Are they (locations) places of different objects and events? What is the
philosophical significance of embodied space?
(12)One of the philosophical conundrums ancient atomism is to explain initial movement of atoms in space. A proposed solution
(by Epicurus) was that atoms have weight and because of their weight they move downward. The downward movement, however,
presupposes the directions of “up” and “down.” But if the universe is infinite space, there is no up or down. How does
embodied interpretation of space or embodied metaphors of “up” and “down” solve this conundrum of ancient atomism?
B.Japanese Zen Garden
(13)How to appreciate empty space of a Zen garden if there is nothing to see or interact with? What are the four meanings of
emptiness one can get from Japanese Zen garden?
C.CyberSpace
(14)What is the nature of spatiality of cyberspace? What kind of space is it (cyberspace)? What is separating space and
connecting space? What is the difference between connecting space and separating space? Is cyberspace connecting space or
separating space?