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( Mary Jansen is the assistant chief accountant at Casey Company, a manufacturer of computer chips and cellular phones. The company presently has a total sales of $20 million. It is the end of the first quarter. Mary is hurriedly trying to prepare a general ledger trial balance so that quarterly financial statements can be prepared and released to management and the regulatory agencies. The total credits on the trial balance exceed the debits by $1000 . In order to meet the 4. pm deadline, Mary decides to force the debits and the credits into balance by adding the amount of difference to the equipment account. she chose equipment because it is one of the larger balances; percentage wise, it will be the least misstated. Mary "plugs" the difference! She believes that the difference will not affect anyone’s decision. She wishes that she had another few days to find the error but realizes that the financial statements are already late)
(1)- Who are the stakeholders in this situation?
(2)- What are the ethical issues involved in this case?
(3)- What are Mary’s alternatives?
Ethical case 2
( B. J. Ortiz Wholesale Corp. uses the LIFO method of inventory costing. In the current year, profit at B. J Ortiz is running unusually high. The corporate tax rate is also high this year, but it is scheduled to decline significantly next year. In an effort to lower the current year’s net income to take advantage of the changing income tax rate, the president of B. J> Ortiz Wholesale instructs the plant accountant to recommend to the purchasing department a large purchase of inventory for delivery 3 days before the end of the year. The price of the inventory to be purchased has doubled during the year, and the purchase will represent a major portion of the ending inventory value.)
(1)- What is the effect of this transaction on this year’s and next year’s income statement and income tax expense? Why?
(2)- If B. J. Ortiz Wholesale had been using the FIFO method of inventory costing, would the president give the same directive?
(3)- Should the plant accountant order the inventory purchase to lower income? What are the ethical implications of this order?
Ethics case 3
( Daniel Logan owns and manages Danial’s Restaurant, a 24-hour restaurant near the city’s medical complex/ Danial employs a 9 full-time employees and 16-part time employees.He pays all the full time employees by check, the amounts of which are determined by Danial’s public accountant, Gina Watt. Danial pays all of his part time employees in currency. He computes their wage and withdraws the cash directly from his cash register.
Gina has repeatedly urged Danial to pay all employees by check. But as Danial has told his competitor and friend, Steve Hill. who owns the Greasy Diner, "My part-time employees prefer the currency over a check. Also, I don’t withhold or pay any taxes or workman’s compensation insurance on those cash wages because they go totally unrecorded and unnoticed.")
(1) Who are the stakeholders in this situation ?
(2) What are the legal and ethical considerations regarding Danial’s handling of his payroll?
(3)- Gina Watt is aware of Danial’s payment of the part-time payroll in currency. what are her ethical responsibilities in this case?
(4)- What internal control principle is violated in this payroll process?