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What effect does colonialism and modernization have on an old and traditional culture? Throughout history the result of new cultures or traditions always created problems for old ones. Sadly, this results in the destruction of the old one. Barbara Kingsolver’s, The Poisonwood Bible, as well as Cormac McCarthy’s, All The Pretty Horses, deals with this issue through its plethora of themes and symbols. The underlying theme of The Poisonwood Bible throughout the novel is the idea that arrogance makes westerners indifferent to how third-world countries are affected by colonialism. The title of the book is, in itself, a demonstration of how the prominently western religion of Christianity and the western culture can cause destruction and pain when imposed upon the Congolese by American Baptists. Similarly, in All The Pretty Horses, western culture is causing the endangerment of cowboys. The idea of western arrogance gives way to secondary themes and symbols that all revolve around the effect Nathan and the United States have on the individuals inhabiting the Congo before and after its ind…