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Introduction
In 1944, after the Red Army invaded Poland and imposed the communist system upon it, large groups of Polish society resisted the attempts at social conversion inspired by Marxist ideologies and Soviet example. Many social echelons were effected by the new social engineering which included, “expropriations, ideological and organizational unification, and party and state control over social, political, and economic life.” (Karpinski. 1997). Writers, artists and educators had success bypassing such strict censorship and were able to deliver their messages to the public, teaching values different than the ones officially approved by their government. After 1956, Polish historians, sociologists, and philosophers were able to publish valuable works that were free of Marxist ideological obligations. Some authors chose to bypass censorship completely by publishing abroad. The development of unofficial, uncensored, and underground publishing in the 1970’s broadened the channels of public communication. Radio Free Europe and other Western radio stations broadcast works publish…