The world of business has undergone radical and dramatic changes in the last decade changes that present extraordinary challenges for the contemporary manager. A manager is an organizational member who is responsible for planning, organizing, leading, and controlling the activities of the organization so that the goals can be achieved. According to a widely referenced study by Henry Mintzberg, managers serve three primary roles: interpersonal, informational, and decision-making. Management is process of administrating and coordinating resources effectively and efficiently in an effort to achieve the goals of the organization.
The concept of management within an organization typically occurs in an organizational setting. Organizations compromise a group of individuals who work together toward common goals. The concept of management within an organization can also be looked upon as a context as well as a process. Within the process of management there are four major functions planning, organizing, leading, and controlling.
Managers at all levels of the organizational hierarchy must engage in planning. Planning involves setting goals and defining the actions necessary to achieve those goals. In planning the top-level manager establishes the overall goals and strategies for the organization. While on the other hand the other managers in the hierarchy develop operational plans for their work groups, which has a responsibility to help the or…